Glossary


 

A

Abdominoplasty
A surgical procedure, also known as tummy tuck, to correct the apron of excess skin hanging over your abdomen


Antihelical fold
A fold that is just inside the rim of the ear


Arborizing veins
Veins that resemble tiny, branch-like shapes in a cartwheel pattern, often seen on the outer thigh


Areola
Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple


Auditory canal
A passage in the ear


Augmentation Mammaplasty
Breast enlargement by surgery


B

Basal cell carcinoma
The most common form of skin cancer. Occurs in the epidermis. These growths are often round and pearly or darkly pigmented


Bilateral gynecomastia
A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting both breasts in men


Biocompatible materials
Synthetic or natural material used in facial implants and designed to function along with living tissue


Blepharoplasty
Eyelid surgery to improve the appearance of upper eyelids, lower eyelids or both


Brachioplasty
A surgical procedure, also known as arm lift, to correct sagging of the upper arms


Breast augmentation
Also known as augmentation mammaplasty; breast enlargement by surgery


Breast lift
Also known as mastopexy; surgery to lift the breasts


Breast reconstruction
Breast reconstruction is achieved through several plastic surgery techniques that attempt to restore a breast to near normal shape, appearance and size following mastectomy.


Breast reduction
Reduction of breast size and breast lift by surgery


Brow lift
A surgical procedure to correct a low-positioned or sagging brow. Smoothes furrows across the forehead and between the brows


C

Cancer
The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells


Capsular contracture
A complication of breast implant surgery which occurs when scar tissue that normally forms around the implant tightens and squeezes the implant and becomes firm.


Carpal tunnel syndrome
A condition caused by pressure to the median nerve within the wrist or carpal tunnel causing pain, tingling and numbness


Cheiloplasty
Cleft lip repair surgery


Cheiloschisis
The scientific term for a cleft lip


Chemical peel solutions
Substances that penetrate the skin’s surface to soften irregularities in texture and color


Circumferential thigh lift
A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the outer and mid-thigh


Cleft
A separation of the upper lip and/or the roof of the mouth


Cleft lip
The incomplete formation of the upper lip


Cleft palate
The incomplete formation of the roof of the mouth


Collagen
A natural protein found in our tissues and also used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation


Columella
Tissue that separates the nostrils


Conchal cartilage
The largest and deepest concavity of the external ear


Constricted ear
Also called a lop or cup ear, has varying degrees of protrusion, reduced ear circumference, folding or flattening of the upper helical rim, and lowered ear position


Contracture
A puckering or pulling together of tissues; a potential side effect of surgery


Contractures
Scars that restrict movement due to skin and underlying tissue that pull together during healing and usually occur when there is a large amount of tissue loss, such as after a burn


Cryptotia
Also called hidden ear, occurs when the upper rim of the ear is buried beneath a fold of scalp secondary to abnormal folding of the upper ear cartilage toward the head. The folding is the reverse of that commonly seen in the protruding ear


D

Dermabrasion
Mechanical polishing of the skin


DIEP flap
Deep Inferior Epigastric perforator flap which takes tissue from the abdomen


Donor site
An area of your body where the surgeon harvests skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct your breast - commonly located in less exposed areas of the body such as the back, abdomen or buttocks


Dupuytren’s contracture
A disabling hand disorder in which thick, scar-like tissue bands form within the palm and may extend into the fingers. It can cause restricted movement, bending the fingers into an abnormal position


E

Ear axis
The main line of ear growth


Endocrine system
A group of glands that make hormones which help to control activities in your body such as reproduction, metabolism, growth and development. Testing of your endocrine system may be done to look for signs of diabetes, thyroid disorders, growth hormone deficiency, osteoporosis, hypertension and obesity


Epidermis
The uppermost portion of skin


Excision
To remove the skin


Extensor tendon
A tendon which serves to extend a bodily part


External incisions
Surgical incisions made on the surface of your skin


F

Flap techniques
Surgical techniques used to reposition your own skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct or cover your breast


Flexor tendon
A tendon which serves to bend a body part


Frozen section
A surgical procedure in which the cancerous lesion is removed and microscopically examined by a pathologist prior to wound closure to ensure all cancerous cells have been removed


G

General anesthesia
Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness


Grafting
Tissue taken from other parts of the body


H

Hematoma
Blood pooling beneath the skin


Hemoglobin
Blood count


Human fat
Harvested from your own body and used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation


Hyfrecation
Spider vein treatment in which the vessels are cauterized.


Hyperpigmented scar
A scar that is darker in color


Hypertropic scar
Thick clusters of scar tissue that develop directly at a wound site


Hypopigmented scar
A scar that is lighter in color


I

Injectable fillers
Substances used to restore volume and your youthful appearance

Intraoral
Inside the mouth

Intraoral incisions
Surgical incisions made inside the mouth

Intravenous sedation
Sedatives are administered by injection into a vein to help you relax


K

Keloids
Large scars that can be painful or itchy, and may also pucker which can occur anywhere on your body, developing more commonly where there is little underlying fatty tissue, such as on the breastbone or shoulders

   

L

Laser resurfacing
A method to change the surface of the skin that allows new, healthy skin to form at the scar site


Laser therapy
An intense beam of light passed over the skin to treat discoloration, prominent blood vessels or unwanted hair


Latissimus dorsi flap technique
A surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin tunneled under the skin and tissue of a woman's back to the reconstructed breast and remains attached to its donor site, leaving blood supply intact


Light therapy
(Intense Pulsed Light) Pulses of light that can be used to treat discoloration and texture changes of the skin


Lipoplasty
Another term for liposuction

Liposuction
Also called lipoplasty or suction lipectomy, this procedure vacuums out fat from beneath the skin’s surface to reduce fullness


Local anesthesia
A drug is injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain


Local flap
A surgical procedure used for skin cancer or in trauma in which healthy, adjacent tissue is repositioned over the wound
Lower body lift


Surgical procedure to correct sagging of the abdomen, buttocks, groin, and outer thighs


M

Macrotia
Overly large ears; a rare condition


Mammogram
An x-ray image of the breast


Mastectomy
The removal of a breast, typically to rid the body cancer


Medial thigh lift
A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the inner thigh


Melanoma
A skin cancer that is most often distinguished by its pigmented blackish or brownish coloration and irregular and ill-defined borders is the most serious form of skin cancer. It occurs in the deepest portion of the epidermis, and for this reason, melanoma is the most likely form of skin cancer to spread quickly in the skin and to other parts of the body


Microsurgery
High magnification to repair or reconnect severed nerves and tendons, common in trauma cases and often used to reattach severed fingers or limbs


Microtia
The most complex congenital ear deformity when the outer ear appears as either a sausage-shaped structure resembling little more than the earlobe, or has more recognizable parts of the concha and tragus or other normal ear features. It may or may not be missing the external auditory or hearing canal. Hearing is impaired to varying degrees


Mohs surgery
A surgical procedure that’s used when skin cancer is like an iceberg. Beneath the skin, the cancerous cells cover a much larger region and there are no defined borders


MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging; a painless test to view tissue similar to an x-ray


N

Nasolabial fold
Deep creases between the nose and mouth

Nevi
A mole


O

Obturator
An intraoral device your child may wear prior to repair of the cleft lip which may assist in feeding and maintain the arch of the lip prior to repair


Otoplasty
A surgical procedure also known as ear surgery to improve the shape, position or proportion of the ear

P

Palatoschisis
The scientific term for a cleft palate



PMMA
A widely used implant material formed into tiny microspheres and suspended in a collagen gel for use as a wrinkle filler
Polydactyly
The presence of extra fingers

R


Reduction Mammaplasty
The surgical removal of breast tissue to reduce the size of breasts


Reticular veins
Larger, darker leg veins that tend to bulge slightly, but are not severe enough to require surgical treatment


Rheumatoid arthritis
A disabling disease that can cause severe inflammation in any joint of the body. In the hand, it can deform fingers and impair movement


Rhytidectomy
A surgical procedure, also known as face lift, to reduce sagging of the mid-face, jowls and neck


S


Saline implants
Breast implants filled with a salt water solution


Sclerotherapy
Sclerosing solution injected into a vein, causing it to collapse and fade from view


SGAP flap
Superior Gluteal Artery perforator flap, which takes tissue from the buttock


Silicone implants
Breast implants filled with an elastic gel solution


Simple Linear Veins
Veins which appear as thin, separate lines, and are commonly seen on the inner knee or on the face


Skin graft
A surgical procedure used for skin cancer. Healthy skin is removed from one area of the body and relocated to the wound site. A suture line is positioned to follow the natural creases and curves of the face if possible, to minimize the appearance of the resulting scar


Skin Resurfacing
Treatment to improve the texture, clarity and overall appearance of your skin


Soft tissue augmentation
The use of injectable fillers to restore volume and your youthful appearance


Spider-shaped Veins
A group of veins radiating outward from a dark central point


Spider Veins
Small clusters of red, blue or purple veins that appear in the skin on the thighs, calves and ankles


Stahl’s ear
An ear that is distorted in shape due to an abnormal fold of cartilage


Suction Lipectomy
Another term for liposuction


Support Hose
Special stockings that compress your legs, typically used for varicose veins and post-surgical conditions


Sutures
Stitches used by surgeons to hold skin and tissue together


Syndactyly
When fingers are fused together


T


Tendon
A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part


Tenolysis
A surgical procedure to free a tendon from surrounding adhesions


Tissue Expansion
A procedure that can substitute for skin grafts. An inflatable balloon called a tissue expander is placed under the skin near the scar site to stretch additional skin to be used to revise a scar. Oftentimes, multiple procedures are needed


TRAM Flap
Also known as transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, a surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin from your own abdomen to reconstruct the breast


Transaxillary Incision
An incision made in the underarm area


Trigger Finger
An abnormal condition in which flexion or extension of a finger may be momentarily obstructed by spasm followed by a snapping into place


Tumescent or super-wet liposuction
Requires an infusion of saline solution with adrenaline and possibly anesthetic prior to removal of excess fat


Tummy tuck
A surgical procedure to correct the apron of excess skin hanging over your abdomen


U


Unilateral Gynecomastia
A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting just one breast in men


Ultrasound
A diagnostic procedure that projects high-frequency sound waves into the body and changes the echoes into pictures


Ultrasound-Assisted Lipoplasty
Uses ultrasonic energy to liquefy excess fat prior to surgical suctioning


V


Varicose Veins
Abnormally swollen or dilated veins


Venous system
Veins


Z


Z-plasty
A surgical incision technique that creates small triangular flaps of tissue that help to close wounds over areas of the hand where bending or flexing is essential to function, such as around knuckles


Z-plasty for Scar Revision
A surgical technique that creates angled flaps on either side of the original scar site that can completely reposition or change scar direction, interrupt scar tension or improve scar flexibility

 

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